Israel in Archaeology: The Merneptah Inscription

The Merneptah Stele is a hieroglyphic inscription on stone that attests to Israel’s presence in Canaan in the late-1200’s BC, during the biblical period of the Judges. The inscription was made by Pharaoh Merneptah who reigned over Egypt from ca. 1213 – 1203 BC. Merneptah was son and heir of the famous Ramses II who reigned from 1279 to 1213 BC.

Merneptah_Israel_Stele_Cairo

The Merneptah Stele, a record of Pharaoh Merneptah’s military exploits in the late 13th century BC. “Israel” is listed toward the bottom with other enemies in Canaan. (Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons)

The stele was contemporary with Merneptah’s reign and declares his military exploits against various enemies. (Ancient Egyptians referred to their enemies collectively as the “Nine Bows.”) Most of the inscription describes Merneptah’s defeat of the Libyans but the latter portion names vanquished enemies in Canaan. For Bible students, lines twenty-six to twenty-eight are the most interesting.

The princes are prostrate, saying “Peace!”

Not one raises his head among the Nine Bows.

Desolation is for Tehenu; Hatti is pacified

Plundered is Canaan with every evil;

Carried off is Ashkelon;

Seized upon is Gezer;

Yenoam is made as that which does not exist;

Israel is laid waste, his seed is not;

Kharu has become a widow because of Egypt!

All lands together are pacified.”

“Israel” is listed with Ashkelon, Gezer, and Yenoam – all cities in Canaan. However, the name of Israel is the only one of these followed by the hieroglyphic symbol that denotes a people rather than a political unit. In other words, Egypt saw these enemies as political (governed) territories but recognized Israel separately as an ethnic or social group. This distinction shows that Egypt regarded Israel as a non-politicized, non-centralized people in or around Canaan in the late-thirteenth century BC.

Israel’s identification as a non-centralized people is consistent with the Bible’s description of this time period. The book of Judges contains accounts of Israel in Canaan from the early fourteenth century to the eleventh century. The text describes distinct Canaanite polities (city-states), headed by kings, existing among the various tribes of Israel. “Ephraim [the tribe] did not drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer [the city-state], so the Canaanites lived in Gezer among them.” (Judge. 1:29) This and other statements in Judges agree with Pharaoh Merneptah’s depiction of Israel as a non-politicized people in Canaan during the 13th century BC.

The Merneptah Stele may be the earliest inscriptionary evidence we have for Israel, though another inscription may now be vying for that. Either way, the Merneptah Stele supports the biblical accounts of pre-monarchical “Israel” in Canaan, able to be recognized by Egypt, in the late 1200’s BC.

Posted in Ashkelon, Biblical Archaeology, Egypt, Gezer, Inscriptions and Manuscripts, Israel | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Short Video on digging at a Biblical Site

What is like for someone interested in Biblical Studies to dig at a biblical site? Check out this short video featuring volunteers from the dig at Lachish. (I am one of those interviewed and am listed as a “Pastor” in the opening credits.)

With this in mind… want to join our dig at Lachish? You can come with me. See here for details. Download an itinerary to see the daily schedule and registration information.

Video | Posted on by | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

New book on Archaeology and the Bible

A new book titled, Digging Deeper into the Word:  The Relevance of Archaeology to Christian Apologetics is available on Amazon. The author is Dr. Dale Manor, Professor of Archaeology and the Bible at Harding University.

Dr. Manor is Field Director of Excavations at Tel Beth-Shemesh, an important site for several biblical events. It has 114 pages with nearly 40 color photos. It is quite affordable with a price of only $15.95.

Digging Deeper into the Word:  The Relevance of Archaeology to Christian Apologetics (Vienna WV:  Warren Christian Apologetics Center, 2015).

Book contents:

Introduction

Chapter 1:  Archaeology and the Bible:  What Does This Have to do with That?

Chapter 2:  Abraham:  What Did You See?

Chapter 3:  Hezekiah:  The Churchill of Judah

Chapter 4:  It is Written…

Scan

Cover of “Digging Deeper into the Word” by Dale Manor

 

Posted in archaeologists, Beth-Shemesh, Biblical Archaeology, Israel, Publications & Study Materials | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

New book on questions re: Khirbet Qeiyafa and ancient Judah

There is a new book on the debates surrounding Khirbet Qeiyafa, a recently excavated city dating to the time of King David. The quantity and quality of the finds from Kh. Qeiyafa have reignited discussion over the political, religious, and societal development of ancient Judah in the time of the earliest biblical kings.

The book is titled Debating Khirbet Qeiyafa: A Fortified City in Judah from the Time of King David. Two excavation reports on the Qeiyafa excavations have already been published with more to come. The authors intend this new book to serve as “a comprehensive interim report” on discussions that have arisen over the findings.

Order your copy here. Details and contents are below.


Debating Khirbet Qeiyafa: A Fortified City in Judah from the Time of King David by Yosef Garfinkel, Igor Kreimerman and Peter Zilberg. © 2016.

Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 269 pages and 95 figures.
17.8 x 25.4 cm,   hard cover,  ISBN 978-965-221-106-4

Synopsis: The fieldwork at Khirbet Qeiyafa lasted seven seasons, from 2007 to 2013. This book, written at the end of the excavation phase, summarizes the main results, supplies answers to various issues concerning the site that have been raised over the last few years, and presents a comprehensive interim report. The authors use this opportunity to discuss various methodological issues that relate to archaeology and the biblical tradition, and how to combine the two.

Price: $40  ($30 IES members)  + $20 airmail postage.
To order contact:
http://israelexplorationsociety.huji.ac.il/DebatingQeiyafa.htm

Contents of the book
Preface
Acknowledgments
List of Figures and Tables

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. Archaeological Field Work
1.2. Dating the Site
1.3. Analysis of Finds
1.4. Publication of Archaeological Data
1.5. Historical Archaeology

Part I: Khirbet Qeiyafa in Context

Chapter 2. The Current State of Research: Scientific Paradigms Concerning King David
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Scientific Paradigms of King David

Chapter 3. The Archaeology of Khirbet Qeiyafa
3.1. The Site and its History of Research
3.2. The Iron Age City
3.3. The Construction of the Iron Age City
3.4. Radiometric Dating of the Iron Age City
3.5. The Pottery Assemblage
3.6. Metal and Stone Tools
3.7. Exchange Networks
3.8. Scarabs, Seals and Other Small Finds
3.9. Inscriptions
3.10. Animal Bones
3.11. Cultic Activities
3.12. Destruction and Abandonment
3.13. Summary

Part II: Methodological Considerations

Chapter 4. What is a Scientific Explanation?

Chapter 5. The Bible and Archaeology: Methodological Remarks
5.1. Walking on the Path of Biblical Archaeology: Some Remarks on the History of Research
5.2. Use and Misuse of Biblical Traditions in Archaeology

Part III: Debating Khirbet Qeiyafa

Chapter 6. The Debate on the Stratigraphy
6.1. The City Wall
6.2. The Two Gates
6.3. The Later Peripheral Wall on the East

Chapter 7. The Debate on Relative Chronology
7.1. How Should Transitional Periods be Defined?
7.2. The Pottery Assemblage
7.3. Methodological Considerations

Chapter 8. The Debate on Absolute Chronology
8.1. The Iron Age Chronology Debate
8.2. Khirbet Qeiyafa’s Absolute Chronology
8.3. The Methodological Problems of the Low Chronology

Chapter 9. The Debate on Writing and Language (Peter Zilberg)
9.1. The Khirbet Qeiyafa Ostracon
9.2. The Debate on the Ostracon’s Language
9.3. The ʾIšbaʿal Inscription

Chapter 10. The Debate on Ethnic and Political Affiliation
10.1. Methodological Aspects of Ethnic and Political Identifications
10.2. The Philistine Hypothesis
10.3. The Canaanite Hypothesis
10.4. The Israelite or Judahite Hypothesis

Chapter 11. The Debate on the Ancient Name of Khirbet Qeiyafa
11.1. How Can Ancient Names be Reconstructed?
11.2. The Case Study of Khirbet Qeiyafa

Chapter 12. The Debate on the Historical Context: The “Kingdom of Saul”

Part IV: The Contribution of Khirbet Qeiyafa to Iron Age Archaeology and History

Chapter 13. Khirbet Qeiyafa and the Archaeology of the Tenth Century BCE
13.1. Daily Material Culture
13.2. Iron Age Chronology
13.3. The Tripartite Division of Iron Age IIA
13.4. Surveys and Reconstructed Settlement Patterns
13.5. Urbanization Processes
13.6. Royal Architecture
13.7. Trade
13.8. Writing
13.9. The Three Cultic Rooms
13.10. The Absence of Figurines
13.11. Was Judah a State in the Late Eleventh/Early Tenth Centuries BCE?

Chapter 14. The Biblical Tradition, Khirbet Qeiyafa and King David
14.1. Prehistory, Protohistory and History in Biblical Traditions: History Starts with David
14.2. Did David Kill Goliath near Khirbet Qeiyafa?
14.3. The Judean City at Khirbet Qeiyafa
14.4. United Kingdom or Kingdom of Judah?
14.5. Central Place Theory and the Early Kingdom of Judah
14.6. The Historical King David
14.7. Architecture and Power in the Early Kingdom of Judah
14.8. Concluding Remarks

Bibliography

Cover of the new book. (Courtesy of the Israel Exploration Society)

Cover of the “Debating Khirbet Qeiyafa” volume. (Courtesy of the Israel Exploration Society)

Posted in archaeologists, Biblical Archaeology, Inscriptions and Manuscripts, Israel, Khirbet Qeiyafa, New Discoveries, Philistines, Publications & Study Materials | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Statue of Ram (symbol of Christ?) discovered at Caesarea

The Israel Antiquities Authority announced that a marble ram statue was discovered on the site of a 6th-century AD Byzantine church at Caesarea. It may be an early representation of Jesus. The discovery was apparently made on Christmas Eve day.

In Christian art the ram is often depicted carried on the shoulders of the “Good Shepherd” (that is, Jesus, who is portrayed as the shepherd tending his flock), and sometimes the ram is situated to the left or right of Jesus. In Christianity the ram, like the lamb, represents the faithful, or Jesus himself, whose anguish and death were meant according to Christian belief to atone for original sin…

According to Dr. Peter Gendelman and Mohammad Hater, directors of the excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “… In ancient Christianity Jesus was not portrayed as a person. Instead, symbols were used, one of which was the ram… The statue that we found might have been part of the decoration of a Byzantine church from the sixth–seventh centuries CE at Caesarea. By the same token it could also be earlier, from the Roman period, and was incorporated in secondary use in the church structure”.

The marble ram.

The marble ram near the place of its discovery. Modern building around the ancient harbor are visible in the background. (Photo by Vered Sarig, the Caesarea Development Corporation)

Tha marble ram, possibly denoting Jesus. (photo courtesy of

Tha marble ram, possibly denoting Jesus. (Photo by Vered Sarig, the Caesarea Development Corporation).

The site of the Byzantine church was originally for a Roman temple built by Herod to honor the Emperor Augustus. This temple dominated the harbor as ships sailed in and out. Later, the pagan temple was torn down and an octagonal church built in its place.

View of Caesare's inner harbor, now silted up. A Roman temple to Augustus, followed by an octagonal church, sat above. (Photo by Luke Chandler

View of Caesare’s inner harbor, now silted up and covered with grass. A Roman temple to Augustus, followed by an octagonal church, sat on the platform above the harbor. The marble ram statue was discovered during excavations there. (Photo by Luke Chandler)

Ferrell Jenkins shows examples of Jesus portrayed as the Good Shepherd via rams and lambs in Late Roman statuary.

HT: Joe Lauer

Posted in archaeologists, General Archaeology, Israel, Jesus, New Discoveries | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Now I Know My ABC’s: New Lachish Discovery Illuminates Alphabet’s History

An inscription discovered at Tel Lachish in 2014 gives a rare glimpse into the history of the alphabet. It happens to have been found in a square worked by my nephew.

This discovery reveals new stages in the development of our alphabet, which came from this Canaanite script. Here is an excerpt from the news summary.

A potsherd slightly larger than a business card found in the ruins of a Late Bronze Age temple at the biblical site of Lachish in southern Israel has yielded a few tantalizing letters from a 12th century BCE alphabet — what one researcher called a “once in a generation” find.

The inscription, three lines containing nine early Semitic letters, was discovered during excavations at the site in 2014 and is believed to date from around 1130 BCE. It’s the first Canaanite inscription found in a Late Bronze Age context in over 30 years, the authors of the paper said. The letters were etched into a clay jar before firing, and are exceptionally clear.

The first line reads pkl, the second spr — the Semitic root for scribe — but the third has two letters of uncertain meaning (one is fragmentary). The text includes the earliest dateable examples of the letters kaf — the precursor to the Latin letter K — samekh — S — and resh — R. Samekh had never before been found in early Canaanite inscriptions.

12th century BC Canaanite inscription discovered at Lachish in 2014. It is the first late Bronze inscription in Canaan discovered in over 30 years. (Courtesy of Yossi Garfinkel, Hebrew University)

12th century BC Canaanite inscription discovered at Lachish in 2014. It is the first late Bronze inscription in Canaan discovered in over 30 years. (Courtesy of Yossi Garfinkel, Hebrew University)

I mentioned the pending publication of this inscription earlier this year. Read this news announcement then go on to read or download the full peer-reviewed article in the November/December, 2015 issue of BASOR.

Besides the inscription, excavation uncovered a bronze religious figurine, pieces of decorated bronze, and a small grinding stone from the very same square in 2014. The quantity and quality of these finds led the staff to open at least 8 adjacent squares in 2015, revealing a Late Bronze Canaanite temple in Level VI of Tel Lachish. What will we uncover next season? Join us in the summer of 2016 and help us discover more.

Area of excavation for a Late Bronze Canaanite temple (12th century BC) at Lachish in 2015. (Courtesy of Yossi Garfinkel, Hebrew University)

Excavating the ruins of a Late Bronze Canaanite temple (12th century BC) at Lachish in 2015. The new inscription was uncovered in a square back and to the right. (Courtesy of Yossi Garfinkel, Hebrew University)

HT: Joe Lauer

Posted in 2014 Tel Lachish excavation, General Archaeology, Inscriptions and Manuscripts, Israel, Lachish, Languages, New Discoveries, Publications & Study Materials | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Walk through the Israel Museum without going to Jerusalem

Another great museum has partnered with Google to let you visit without leaving home. You can now “walk” through the Israel Museum in Jerusalem using Google Street View to observe displays as if you are there in person.

The museum is known for its large collection from the Ancient Near East, including many famous biblical artifacts. If you are in Jerusalem, plan for a few hours in the Israel Museum. You can use Google Street View to familiarize yourself in advance with the museum’s layout. Otherwise, do the next best thing and visit virtually from home.

All images below are screen shots from my computer, courtesy of Google Maps.

Land of Canaan gallery

Entrance to the “Land of Canaan” galleries in the Israel Museum.


The Israel Museum's display on Jesus of Nazareth. From left to right, the Ossuary of Caiaphas, the Pontius Pilate inscription, and the ossuary of "Yehohanan son of Hagokol" who died by crucifixion. His heel bone is displayed on the far right with the crucifixion nail still embedded.

The Israel Museum’s display on Jesus of Nazareth. From left to right, the Ossuary of Caiaphas, the original Pontius Pilate inscription, and the ossuary of a Jew named “Yehohanan son of Hagkol” who died by crucifixion. His heel bone is displayed on the far right with the crucifixion nail still embedded.


Hazor displays

A view of finds from Canaanite Hazor including lions (foreground) that guarded the entrance of a temple. In the back is an array of standing stones (masseboth) from a Canaanite shrine.


Hazor cultic site

Standing stones from a Canaanite shrine in Hazor, dating approximately to the period of Joshua or Deborah in the Bible (15th to 13th centuries BC). Note the hands on the middle stone of the circle and the flat “offering” stone in the center.


Weapons and military relics from Assyria's destruction of Lachish in Judah, displayed below a simplified replica of Senyacherib's panels from Nineveh that portray the siege.

Weapons and military relics from Assyria’s destruction of Lachish in Judah, displayed below a simplified replica of Sennacherib’s panels that portray the siege. (The original panels are in the British Museum.) This military campaign is described in the biblical books of 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, and Isaiah.


The "Trumpeting Stone" from Jerusalem's Temple Mount, marking the spot where priests would blow the trumpets announcing various events. It was found in debris from the Roman destruction of AD 70.

The “Trumpeting Stone” (center) from Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, marking the spot where priests would blow the trumpets announcing various events. It was found in debris from the Roman destruction of AD 70. To the left is a Greek inscription warning of death for any Gentile entering the sacred zone around the Temple.

Posted in Biblical Archaeology, General Archaeology, Hazor, Interesting places to visit, Israel, Jesus, Lachish, Museums | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Walk through the British Museum without going to London

One of the greatest museums in the world has partnered with Google to let you visit without leaving home. You can now “walk” through the British Museum using Google Street View to observe thousands of artifacts as if you are there in person.

Smithsonian.com reports on this new feature with some brief details on the British Museum’s history. The museum is known in part for its large collection of biblically-related artifacts. If you happen to be in London, plan for a few hours in the British Museum. (It’s free.) You can use this feature to familiarize yourself in advance with the museum’s layout. Otherwise, do the next best thing and visit virtually from home. A number of the artifacts on display can be viewed in HD. You can even read the displayed signage.

Google Street View inside the British Museum. This is a room in the Egyptian galleries.

Google Street View inside the British Museum. This is a room in the Egyptian galleries.

Google Street View of the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, famous for its depiction of Israel's King Jehu.

Google Street View showing the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, famous for its depiction of Israel’s King Jehu (or his emissary) bring tribute.

HT: Barnea Selavan

Posted in Biblical Archaeology, Europe, Museums, Tech & Resources | Tagged , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Seal of Hezekiah discovered in Jerusalem (Updated)

The Israel Antiquities Authority just announced the discovery of a clay seal (bulla) bearing King Hezekiah’s personal seal. The object was discovered in situ in 2009 but just recently deciphered in its entirety. The iconography is interesting and is described below.

Newly-Discovered bulla with Hezekiah's royal seal. (Photo by Ouria Tadmor, courtesy of Hebrew University)

Newly-Discovered bulla with Hezekiah’s royal seal. (Photo by Ouria Tadmor, courtesy of Hebrew University)

Here is an excerpt from the press release. Take note of the analysis, including toward the end.

– – – – – – – –

First seal impression of an Israelite or Judean king ever exposed in situ in a scientific archaeological excavation. Discovery brings to life the Biblical narratives about King Hezekiah and the activity conducted during his lifetime in Jerusalem’s 1st Temple Period Royal Quarter

See video at http://www.keytodavidscity.com (Video is copyright of Dr. Eilat Mazar and Herbert W. Armstrong College)

The Ophel excavations at the foot of the southern wall of the Temple Mount, conducted by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Institute of Archaeology under the direction of Dr. Eilat Mazar, have unearthed an impression of the royal seal of King Hezekiah (727–698 BCE).

Measuring 9.7 X 8.6 mm, the oval impression was imprinted on a 3 mm thick soft bulla (piece of inscribed clay) measuring 13 X 12 mm. Around the impression is the depression left by the frame of the ring in which the seal was set.

The impression bears an inscription in ancient Hebrew script:

לחזקיהו [בן] אחז מלך יהדה

“Belonging to Hezekiah [son of] Ahaz king of Judah”

and a two-winged sun, with wings turned downward, flanked by two ankh symbols symbolizing life.

The bulla originally sealed a document written on a papyrus rolled and tied with thin cords, which left their mark on the reverse of the bulla. This bulla came to light, together with many pottery sherds and other finds such as figurines and seals, in Area A of the excavations (2009 season), supervised by Hagai Cohen-Klonymus.

The bulla was discovered in a refuse dump dated to the time of King Hezekiah or shortly after, and originated in the Royal Building that stood next to it and appears to have been used to store foodstuffs. This building, one of a series of structures that also included a gatehouse and towers, was constructed in the second half of the 10th century BCE (the time of King Solomon) as part of the fortifications of the Ophel — the new governmental quarter that was built in the area that connects the City of David with the Temple Mount.

The bulla was found together with 33 additional bullae imprinted from other seals, some bearing Hebrew names, their reverse showing marks of coarse fabric and thick cords that probably sealed sacks containing foodstuffs.

Dr. Eilat Mazar said: “Although seal impressions bearing King Hezekiah’s name have already been known from the antiquities market since the middle of the 1990s, some with a winged scarab (dung beetle) symbol and others with a winged sun, this is the first time that a seal impression of an Israelite or Judean king has ever come to light in a scientific archaeological excavation.”

… A video about this discovery is available online at http://www.keytodavidscity.com (video is copyright of Dr. Eilat Mazar and Herbert W. Armstrong College).

… The seal impression was found during the wet-sifting of earth layers from the excavation in the Emek-Zurim wet-sifting facility, directed by Dr. Gabriel Barkai and Zachi Dvira, under the auspices of the Nature and Parks Authority and the Ir David Foundation. The bulla was discovered by Efrat Greenwald, a member of the Ophel expedition, who supervised the wet-sifting of the excavation material. Reut Ben-Aryeh, who prepared the Hebrew bullae from the Ophel excavations for publication, was the first to identify it as a seal impression of King Hezekiah. Students and alumni of Herbert W. Armstrong College from Edmond, Oklahoma participated in the excavation.

… The symbols on the seal impression from the Ophel suggest that they were made late in his life, when both the Royal administrative authority and the King’s personal symbols changed from the winged scarab (dung beetle)—the symbol of power and rule that had been familiar throughout the Ancient Near East, to that of the winged sun—a motif that proclaimed God’s protection, which gave the regime its legitimacy and power, also widespread throughout the Ancient Near East and used by the Assyrian Kings.

This change most likely reflected both the Assyrian influence and Hezekiah’s desire to emphasize his political sovereignty, and Hezekiah’s own profound awareness of the powerful patronage given his reign by the God of Israel. While the changed Royal administrative symbol imprinted on the King’s jars used the motif of a sun with wings extended to the sides, Hezekiah’s personal changed symbol had a sun with sheltering wings turned down and a life-symbol at the end of each wing. This special addition of the symbol of life may support the assumption that the change on the King’s personal seal was made after Hezekiah had recovered from the life-threatening illness of shehin (II Kings 20:1-8), when the life-symbol became especially significant for him (ca. 704 BCE).

– – – – – – –

Some readers may want to note that while this discovery involved archaeologists from Hebrew University, it also included U.S. students and alumni from a college in Oklahoma. See what volunteers can discover on a dig?

Update: Robert Deutsch notes that another impression made from the same original seal was previously published in two periodicals. What are the odds of finding two impressions from the same royal seal of a biblical king?

Deutsch also notes, “1. The incuse area around the impression indicates that the seal was set in a bezel of a ring while it was used to impress the bulla. 2. The left side of the bulla is slightly damaged by the finger of the king ! Its finger-print is partly preserved!”

Posted in archaeologists, Biblical Archaeology, Inscriptions and Manuscripts, Israel, Jerusalem, New Discoveries, Short videos | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

My Interview by Randy McCracken 

Randy McCracken recently interviewed me. What is it like to be on a dig? What are the most difficult and rewarding parts of that experience? What is the most exciting thing I’ve ever discovered? Read about these things and more, if so inclined, right here.

An excerpt from the interview:

If you want a deeper understanding of the Bible and its world, find a way to get yourself on a dig, even if just for a couple of weeks. It will give you understanding and insights that no book can provide. You will benefit from it the rest of your life, along with others you teach or influence. I’ve excavated with people as young as 13, with others who are in their 70’s, and with every age in between. Most of the best digs are open for people just like you. The sooner you go, the longer – and greater – the benefit will be.

I am preparing to be with the 2016 Lachish expedition for two weeks next summer. Would you like to join me?

Sunrise on the second day of my first dig season in 2009.

Sunrise on the second day of my first dig season in 2009. The photo was taken at Khirbet Qeiyafaa, which overlooks the David and Goliath battlefield.


The moment after discovering a sling stone in the 2015 season at Lachish.

Celebrating the discovery of a sling stone in my seventh season with a dig – the 2015 excavation at Lachish.

Posted in Biblical Archaeology, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Lachish | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment