Even simple things such as bread required serious work in ancient times. Most people grew or purchased barley, wheat, or other grains and used grinding stones to turn it into flour. This first step was the most strenuous, requiring real muscle power from women and girls. Yes, bread-making fell to the females.
How did grinding stones work? How does an archaeologist recognize them on a dig? You may enjoy this short video about a grinding stone we found yesterday at Tel Lachish in Israel. This specimen is from the time of the biblical Judges or kings. It will be more accurately dated tomorrow when we analyze the pottery found with it.